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East Java, Surawana Temple, Canggu Village, Kediri

East Java, Surawana Temple, Canggu Village, Kediri


Surawana Temple is situated in Canggu Village, Pare Subdistrict, Kediri Regency. It is about 25 kilometers to the northeast of Kediri. The temple, whose official name is Wishnubhawanapura, is estimated to be built in 14th century in order to glorify Bhre Wengker, a king of Wengker Kingdom, a nation under the control of Majapahit Empire. The king of Wengker died in 1388. Negarakertagama states that in 1361, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit Empire once visited the temple and even stayed there. The temple is small, only 8 meters x 8 meters. The temple, which was made of entirely andesite stones, is a Shiva temple. Currently, the whole body and roof of the temple have gone without a trace. Only the 3 meter high temple base remains in its place. To access the veranda on the temple base, a narrow stairway is available on the west side. From the stairway position, it can be concluded that this temple faces towards the west. As it is seen in Rimbi Temple, The base of the temple looks as if it had two layers, and each layer is separated by a line with projecting design in every corner. The upper base, the base above the decorative line, is narrower than the lower base. Unlike the relief sculptures at Rimbi Temple, the bas-reliefs sculpture at Surawana Temple are made bigger and finer, engraved on both the upper and lower bases. Relief sculptures on the lower base depict Tantric tales, while the relief sculptures on the upper base portray the tales of Sri Tanjung, Arjunawiwaha, Bubuksah and Gagak Aking. Such tales are commonly found at purification temples e.g. Bajangratu Temple in Trowulan and Tegawangi Temple, which is also in Pare. Looking at the neatly orderly environment, Surawana appears to have gone through a restoration. The work, however, is still far from perfection since the base of the temple is the only part left. There are still a lot of stones and statues that have not been restored to their original positions. The stones and statues are neatly arranged on rows made of cement blocks in order to prevent further damage due to water absorption.

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